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绝密★启用前

 

 

2017年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试

 

全国第一次择校联考

 

[英语二]

 

 

 

--------------------------------考生注意事项----------------------------------

1. 考生必须严格遵守各项考场规则.

2. 答题前,考生应将答题卡上的“考生姓名”、“报考单位”、“考生编号”等信息

填写清楚,并与准考证上的一致.

3. 答案必须按要求填涂或写在指定的答题卡上.

(1)英语知识运用、阅读理解的答案填涂在答题卡(一)上,英译汉的答案和

作文应写在答题卡(二)上.

(2)填涂部分应该按照答题卡上的要求用 2B 铅笔完成.如要改动,必须用橡皮

擦擦干净.书写部分(英译汉的答案和作文)必须用(黑)色字迹钢笔、圆珠

笔、或签字笔在答题卡上作答.

 4. 答题卡严禁折叠.考试结束后,将答题卡(一)和答题卡(二)一起放入原试卷袋中,试卷交给监考人员.

 

 

Section I Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

At work, as in life, attractive women get a lot of good lucks. Studies have shown that they are more likely to be   1   than their plain-Jane colleagues because people tend to project  2  traits  3   them, such as a sensitive heart and a cool head. They may also be at a(n)  4  in job interviews. But researchers suggest otherwise.

Brad Hanks at Georgia State University looked at what happens when job hunters include photos with their resume, as is the   5   in much of Europe and Asia. The pair sent made-up applications to over 2,500 real-life   6   . For each job, they sent two very similar resume, one with a photo, one without. Subjects had previously been graded for their attractiveness.

For men, the results were   7   expected. Hunks were more likely to be called for an interview if they included a photo. Ugly men were better off not including one. However, for women, this was   8  . Attractive females were less likely to be offered an interview if they included a mug-shot. When applying directly to a company (rather than through an agency) an attractive woman would need to send out 11 CVs on average   9   getting an interview; a(n)   10    qualified plain one just seven.

At first, Mr. Hanks considered—   11   he calls the “dumb-blonde hypothesis”—that people   12 beautiful women to be stupid. The photos had also been rated on how   13  people thought each subject looked;    14   there was no   15   between perceived intellect and beauty.

So the cause of the discrimination must   16   elsewhere. Human resources departments tend to be   17   mostly by women. Indeed, in the Israel study, 93% of those tasked with selecting whom to invite for an interview were female. The researcher’s unavoidable—and unpalatable—conclusion is that old-fashioned   18   led the women to discriminate   19 pretty candidates.

So should attractive women simply attach photos that make them look dowdy? No. Better, says Mr. Ruffle, to discourage the practice of including a photo altogether. Companies might even consider the   20   model used in the Belgian public sector, where CVs do not even include the candidate’s name.

1.[A] recruited [B] offended [C] promoted [D] flattered

2.[A] possible [B] peculiar [C] perfect [D] positive

3.[A] with [B] to [C] in [D] on

4.[A] advantage [B] benefit [C] favor [D] edge

5.[A] standard [B] norm [C] criterion [D] example

6.[A] places [B] sites [C] spaces [D] vacancies

7.[A] as [B] below [C] beyond [D] above

8.[A] diversified [B] conversed [C] reversed [D] reserved

9.[A] unless [B] before [C] while [D] when

10.[A] equally [B] fully [C] suitably [D] ideally

11.[A] what [B] as [C] which [D] that

12.[A] assert [B] define [C] judge [D] assume

13.[A] interior [B] intelligent [C] integral [D] intelligible

14.[A] Therefore [B] However [C] Additionally [D] Consequently

15.[A] conflict [B] overlap [C] correlation [D] alliance

16.[A] locate [B] rely [C] lay [D] lie

17.[A] staffed [B] occupied [C] populated [D] inhabited

18.[A] admiration [B] jealousy [C] prejudice [D] stereotype

19.[A] about [B] against [C] with [D] for

20.[A] analogous [B] unanimous [C] anonymous [D] anecdotal

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

 

Text 1

Federal health officials yesterday announced plans to begin mining the medical records of millions of patients to try to identify safety problems from drugs and medical devices more quickly. The Sentinel Initiative will enable the Food and Drug Administration and others to analyze the growing number of databases of health records compiled by the government, health insurers and HMOs (Health Maintenance Organizations) to try to identify drug-and device-related problems sooner than does the current system, which relies primarily on voluntary reporting by individual doctors.

“It will be a quantum leap forward in the FDA’s capacity to monitor the use of medical products that are currently on the market,” said Health and Human Services Secretary Mike Leavitt. “We are moving from reactive dependence on voluntary reporting of product-safety concerns to proactive surveillance of medical products that are currently on the market. The result will be much improved safety.”

The agency plans to start by analyzing data collected about the more than 25 million people enrolled in the new Medicare prescription drug program. “State agencies and academic researchers will also have access to the data under a new federal regulation that will go into effect in 30 days,” officials said. “The FDA will eventually be able to query databases of tens of millions of patients almost simultaneously,” Leavitt said. The officials stressed that the system will protect patient privacy by keeping all identifying information confidential. “FDA will not receive information that identifies individual patients, so patient privacy will remain protected,” Leavitt said.

The FDA has come under intense criticism in recent years because of safety problems with prescription drugs such as the painkiller Vioxx, which was pulled from the market in 2004 after researchers discovered it was causing heart attacks. Although drugs and medical devices undergo safety testing before being approved, often the studies are too small or too short to identify harmful side effects that show up when millions of patients start using them. As a result, the FDA primarily relies on doctors to voluntarily report problems they notice among patients. The agency has also recently gotten more authority to require drug companies to conduct follow-up studies of drugs after they have been approved.

“Before Sentinel, tracking drug safety was like looking at the stars in your back yard with the naked eye,” Leavitt said. “After Sentinel, it’s like giving you the strongest telescope on the market, which allows you to see precise details in great distances.”

 

21. The word “mining” (line 1, paragraph 1) most probably means_______.

[A] researching

[B] reducing

[C] breaking

[D] collecting

22. According to Leavitt, the tremendous progress in medical product monitoring is _______.

[A] the change from doctor-financing to government-funding

[B] the shift through market-concern to safety-concern

[C] the difference between paperwork and database

 [D] the transition from passive waiting-for-report to active supervision

23. The patients’ privacy will be protected by _______.

[A] keeping the patients’ information confidential

[B] offering millions of patients’ information simultaneously

[C] deleting the patients’ identifying information

[D] screening the access to patients’ identification info

24. According to paragraph 4, the FDA needs doctors’ voluntary report because _______.

[A] the effectiveness of medical products impresses doctors most directly

[B] safety-problems of medical products cannot be easily detected in short-term studies

[C] FDA needs doctors’ feedback to decide the approval of medical products

[D] follow-up studies of drugs can only be conducted among doctors

25. The author’s attitude towards the Sentinel Initiative may be summarized as _______.

[A] skeptical

[B] indifferent

[C] supportive

[D] intolerable

 

Text 2

As Michelle Obama and Cindy McCain prepare for prominent appearances at the party nominating conventions, both are viewed more favorably than not, even though a substantial slice of the electorate has yet to form a firm opinion.

A new Washington Post-ABC News poll finds little change in public perceptions of the two potential first ladies since the primaries ended in early June. About half of all registered voters now view each favorably, with three in 10 holding unfavorable impressions of Obama and two in 10 of McCain. A third expressed no opinion about McCain, and about two in 10 did of Obama.

Post-convention poll bounces are typically associated with candidates, but their spouses also can use the conventions to increase support. In 1992, Hillary Rodham Clinton took the stage in New York with a 45 percent favorable rating, according to a Gallup-CNN-USA Today poll. Thirty percent held unfavorable impressions of her. After her speech, that initial 15-point net positive rating increased to a 27-point advantage, mirroring the gains made by her husband against President George H. W. Bush.

Both McCain and Obama have largely been treading water in public opinion, but their convention speeches present an opportunity to notch bigger shifts than they have earned in the past two months. Independents have warmed to both women over the summer. More than half of those in the middle of the political spectrum now hold positive views of Obama and McCain. By contrast, Republicans have held basically steady in their views of McCain, as Democrats have of Obama, although both women have earned more deeply favorable views from their fellow partisans. Simultaneously, a June gender gap in views of Obama has largely faded, with 53 percent of women and 48 percent of men now holding favorable views of her. McCain posted gains among women, half of whom now have a positive take.

Following patterns set by their husbands, Obama fares far better among African Americans and has greater appeal among younger women than does McCain (61 percent favorable, compared with 45 percent), while McCain fares slightly better among women 45 and over (53 percent favorable, compared with 48 percent favorable toward Obama). Among those who said they would vote for Obama's husband, three-quarters had a positive impression of her, while seven in 10 of those backing McCain's husband had a favorable view of her.

This Washington Post-ABC News poll was conducted by telephone Aug. 19-22 among a random national sample of 916 registered voters. Results among registered voters have a margin of sampling error of plus or minus three percentage points. It is larger for subgroups.

 

26. We learn from Paragraphs 1, 2 that ____.

[A] it is easy for Michelle Obama and Cindy McCain to change electorates’ mind

[B] it seems that McCain will get more support

[C] Michelle Obama and Cindy McCain will have a poor performance at the party nominating conventions

[D] who will be the president makes no sense to the mass

27. By citing the examples of Hillary Rodham Clinton, the author intends to show that ___.

[A] the convention is meaningless for the spouses of candidates

[B] Hillary Rodham Clinton benefits nothing from her speech

[C] as for the spouses of the candidates, the activities of candidates are as important as the use of conventions

[D] Hillary Rodham Clinton is a potential leader

28. When mentioning “treading water” (Line 1, Paragraph 4), the author is talking about ____.

[A] keeping one upright in deep water by making treading movements with the legs

[B] making no progress in a particular situation

[C] making great effort to do preparing work

[D] having a superior competitive position

29. It can be inferred from Paragraph 4 that____.

[A] the two potential first ladies will not get support from their fellow partisans

[B] it is difficult to exterminate gender gap among voters

[C] McCain has gotten partial support from men

[D] no decisions have been made by Independents

30. Which of the following is true according to the text?

[A] McCain can be accepted by women aged 45 and over, for she is older than Obama.

[B] Voters giving support to candidates will also give support to the spouses of candidates.

[C] Obama’s husband may get more support from African Americans and have great appeal among younger women.

[D] The statistics demonstrated that the figure was accurate and would not cause error.

 

Text 3

Big technology companies are seeing their prized customers in the financial services sector pull way back on existing and new I.T. projects, according to recent data issued by Forrester Research, an independent technology and market research company. Polling almost 950 high-ranking technology managers at large businesses in North America and Europe, Forrester found that more than 40 percent of the companies have reined in their technology spending. More businesses in the United States have cut their spending than anywhere else, and financial services firms have been the most aggressive in trimming their technology purchases.

“I think the storm damage is very location-specific,” said Forrester analyst John McCarthy. “There’s a schizophrenic U.S. economy, and the financial services guys are having a tough time.”  The reticence of financial services companies to shell out for new gear is not surprising given the mortgage crisis and broader cost savings plans. But it’s especially bad news for the major technology companies, since the financial services companies tend to buy cutting-edge, high-margin systems.

Of the companies polled by Forrester, 49 percent in the United States said they’d cut back I.T. budgets, which compares to 38 percent of companies in Canada, 33 percent in the Britain, 32 percent in France and 28 percent in Germany. Forrester, however, was quick to note that the data came from a survey made in the second quarter of 2008, before the economic climate in Europe worsened.

Across all regions, companies warned of putting existing and new projects through more demanding decision processes to make sure they would show substantial return on investment. Many of the companies also said they’d put all discretionary spending on hold. More than 40 percent of the businesses in the manufacturing, retail, utilities and telecommunications categories say they will cut technology. Almost 20 percent of those polled in the United States plan to reduce hardware, software and services spending — by far the most dramatic total reductions for any region, according to Forrester.

Technology giants such as Hewlett-Packard and I.B.M. have recently posted strong financial results. Some of these gains can be attributed to currency benefits that result from large overseas businesses and a weak dollar. Both H.P. and I.B.M. have a wide range or gear and services to depend on during tough times. “Those guys are so big and so diverse from a product line and geography point of view that they seem to weather the storm,” Mr. McCarthy said. 

 

31. The phrase “have reined in” (line 5, paragraph 1) most probably means_______.

[A] have influence on

[B] have led to

[C] have taken over

[D] have cut short

32. In view of the mortgage crisis and broader cost savings plans, _______.

[A] financial service industry is facing up to the storm damage

[B] financial service industry is confronted with predicaments

[C] financial service firms naturally cut down expenses on new I.T. products

[D] IT companies is bringing financial service firms terrible news

33. The trimming of I.T. spending is bad news for large technical companies, because _______.

[A] their products may be more salable

[B] they may run their business at a loss

[C] their high end customer group might shrink

[D] their advanced systems will be less profitable

34. According to Mr. McCarthy, technology giants _______.

[A] are likely to come through the depression safely

[B] are supposed to enlarge their oversea businesses

[C] should take into account the weak dollar

[D] will keep running at a profit and achieving strong results

35. Which of the following would best summarize the text?

[A] Forrester Analyst Said: American Economy Is Divided

[B] Survey Says: I.T. Spending Is Getting Trimmed

[C] Forrester Warn: H.P. and I.B.M. in the Storm

[D] McCarthy Said: I.T. Giants Would Be Safe and Sound

 

Text 4

To help the government attract scientists, doctors, economists and other highly skilled professionals, two House members yesterday introduced a bill that would create graduate-level scholarships for students who commit to public service. Recipients of the awards would be called Roosevelt Scholars, named for Theodore Roosevelt, the president widely considered to be the father of the modern civil service. Reps. David E. Price (D-N.C.) and Christopher Shays (R- Conn.) teamed up to introduce the legislation, aimed at making the government more competitive in hiring for what the bill calls “mission-critical positions.”

About a third of the government’s seasoned professional and technical employees will likely retire in the next five years, according to projections by the Office of Personnel Management. The baby-boom retirements come as Labor Department forecasts show the nation’s workforce growing at a slower pace, setting off keen competition for talent in the public, private and nonprofit sectors. “In the face of a dwindling professional workforce, we must act now to recruit the scientists, engineers and other high-level experts who make our government work,” Price said. “Our initiative would mobilize the country’s colleges and universities to address this very acute challenge.”

Shays, noting that the cost of college continues to rise, said the government needs to “provide resources, like tuition assistance, in order for these jobs to compete with the salaries available to top-notch employees in the private sector.” The Roosevelt Scholars program would provide tuition, room and board, and a stipend for graduate study, up to $60,000 for an academic year. In exchange, scholarship recipients would be required to serve an internship in a federal agency and, upon graduation, serve at least three years in the government.

The bill would provide $10 million in initial funding to establish a nonprofit foundation to manage the scholarships. The foundation would be expected to build an endowment and become self-sustaining over time. One of the leading supporters of the scholarship has been the Partnership for Public Service, a District-based nonprofit group that sponsors research on the civil service and promotes efforts to improve the government’s recruitment strategies. Max Stier, the partnership’s president, said that the military has attracted talented young Americans through officer training programs on college campuses and that the Roosevelt scholarship program “is, in essence, a ROTC (Reserve Officers’ Training Corps) program for civilians.” The scholarships also would lend prestige to the civil service, Stier said. “The intent here is to create a brand as attractive and as powerful as the most elite out there,” he said.

 

36. From the first paragraph, we learn that _______.

[A] the bill involves providing scholarship to encourage students engaging in public service

[B] the President Roosevelt was considered to be the founding father of the scholarship

[C] professionals currently hired by the government are not competitive and efficient enough

[D] the scholarship makes students compete for the “mission-crucial position”

37. The competition for people with ability takes roots in _______.

[A] large-scale retirements and slowly-growing workforce

[B] the prediction of the Office of Personnel Management

[C] ever-growing private sectors and nonprofit groups

[D] acute challenge within colleges and universities

38. The Roosevelt Scholars recipients would obtain the following assistance, except _______.

[A] exemption of fees for education

[B] free accommodation

[C] regular allowance for campus life

[D] free access to academic publications

39. What can we infer from the last paragraph?

[A] The initial funding is far from being sufficient.

[B] Sustainable development is essential to the government.

[C] The Roosevelt scholarship program may appeal to excellent Americans.

[D] The military training and civilian cultivation are equally important.

40. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

[A] The Two Parties Compete for the Talent

[B] Graduate-Level Scholarships Aim at ‘Mission-Critical’ Jobs

[C] A Bill that will Bring Benefit to Scholars

[D] Free Education is Not a Dream

 

Part B

Directions:

Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subtitles from the list A-G for each numbered paragraph (41-45). There are two extra subtitles which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

[A] Work comprises pleasure

[B] Not each hobby suits you

[C] What the commanding people can do?

[D] The growth of interest is a long process

[E] A happy man ought to have some real hobbies

[F] Industrious men are divided into two classes

[G] How to cultivate hobbies

A gifted American psychologist has said, “Worry is a spasm of emotion; the mind catches hold of something and will not let it go.” It is useless to argue with the mind in this condition. The stronger the will, the more futile the task. One can only gently insinuate something else into its convulsive grasp. And if this something else is rightly chosen, if it is really attended by the illumination of another field of interest, gradually, and often quite swiftly, the old undue grip relaxes and the process of recuperation and repair begins.

    41    

The cultivation of a hobby and new forms of interest is therefore a policy of the first importance to a public man. But this is not a business that can be undertaken in a day or swiftly improvised by a mere command of the will. The growth of alternative mental interests spends some time. The seeds must be carefully chosen; they must fall on good ground; they must be sedulously tended; the vivifying fruits are to be at hand when needed.

    42    

To be really happy and really safe, one ought to have at least two or three hobbies, and they must all be real. It is no use starting late in life to say: “I will take an interest in this or that”. Such an attempt only aggravates the strain of mental effort. A man may acquire great knowledge of topics unconnected with his daily work, and yet get hardly any benefit or relief. It is no use doing what you like; you have got to like what you do. Broadly speaking, human beings may be divided into three classes: those who are toiled to death, those who are worried to death, and those who are bored to death.

    43    

It is no use offering the manual laborer, tired out with a hard week’s sweat and effort, the chance of playing a game of football or baseball on Saturday afternoon. It is no use inviting the politician or the professional or business man, who has been working or worrying about serious things for six days, to work or worry about trifling things at the weekend.

    44    

As for the people who can command everything they want, who can gratify every caprice and lay their hands on almost every object of desire—for them a new pleasure, a new excitement is only an additional satiation. In vain they rush frantically round from place to place, trying to escape from avenging boredom by mere clatter and motion. For them discipline in one form or another is the most hopeful path.

    45    

For the industrious human beings, first, those whose work is work and whose pleasure is pleasure; and secondly, those whose work and pleasure are one. Of these the former are the majority. They have their compensations. The long hours in the office or the factory bring with them as their reward, not only the means of sustenance, but a keen appetite for pleasure even in its simplest and most modest forms. For them the working hours are never long enough. Each day is a holiday, and ordinary holidays, when they come, are grudged as enforced interruptions in an absorbing vocation. Yet to both classes, the need of an alternative outlook, of a change of atmosphere, of a diversion of effort, is essential.

Indeed, it may well be that those whose work is their pleasure are those who most need the means of banishing it at intervals from their minds.

Section III Translation

46. Directions:

Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

The Internet is a giant network of computers located all over the world that communicate with each other.

The Internet is an international collection of computer networks’ that all understand a standard system of addresses and commands, connected together through backbone systems. It was started in 1969, when the U.S. Department of Defense established a nationwide network to connect a handful of universities and contractors. The original idea was to increase computing capacity that could be shared by users in many locations and to find out what it would take for computer networks to survive a nuclear war or other disaster by providing multiple paths between users.

Over the years, additional networks joined, which added access to more and more computers. The first international connections, to Norway and England, were added in 1973. Today thousands of networks and millions of computers are connected to the Internet. It is growing so quickly that nobody can say exactly how many users “On the Net”.

Section IV Writing

Part A

47. Directions:

Write a letter to Frank, an international student from America, inviting him to attend the discussion meeting over Sino-American Cultural Differences.

You should include the details you think necessary.

You should write about 100 words neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.

Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming” instead.

Do not write the address. (10 points)

 

Part B

48. Directions:

Write an essay based on the following chart. In your writing, you should

1) describe the chart, and

2) give your comments.

You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

 

 

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