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Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A，B，C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
The Earth’s daily clock, measured in a single revolution, is twenty-four hours. The human clock, 1 , is actually about twenty-five hours. That’s 2 scientists who study sleep have determined from human subjects who live for several weeks in observation chambers with no 3 of day or night. Sleep researchers have 4 other surprising discoveries as well.
We spend about one-third of our lives asleep, a fact that suggests sleeping, 5 eating and breathing, is fundamental life process. Yet some people almost never sleep, getting by on as 6 as fifteen minutes a day. And more than seventy years of 7 into sleep deprivation, in which people have been kept 8 for three to ten days, has yielded only one certain findings: sleep loss makes a person sleepy and that’s about all; it causes no lasting ill 9 . Too much sleep, however, may be 10 for you.
These findings 11 some long-held views of sleep, and they raise questions about its fundamental purpose in our lives. In 12 , scientists don’t know just why sleep is necessary.
“We get sleepy, and when we sleep, that sleeping is reversed,” Dr. Howard Roffwarg of the University of Texas in Dallas explains, “We know sleep has a function, 13 we feel it has a function. We can’t put our finger on it, but it must, 14 in some way, direct or indirect, have to do with rest and restitution.”
Other scientists think sleep is more the results of evolutionary habit than 15 actual need. Animals sleep for some parts of the day perhaps because it is the 16 thing for them to do: it keeps them 17 and hidden from predators; it’s a survival tactic. Before the advent of electricity, humans had to spend at least some of each day in 18 and had little reason to question the reason or need for 19 . But the development of the electroencephalograph and the resulting discovery in 1937 of dramatic 20 in brain activity between sleep and wakefulness opened the way for scientific inquiry in the subject.
1． [A] however [B] otherwise [C] likewise [D] therefore
2． [A] that [B] what [C] when [D] why
3． [A] idea [B] feeling [C] sense [D] judgment
4． [A] come up against [B] come down to [C] come up with [D] come up to
5． [A] with [B] like [C] unlike [D] as
6． [A] little [B] much [C] few [D] long
7． [A] probe [B] investigation [C] research [D] examination
8． [A] asleep [B] sleepy [C] active [D] awake
9． [A] effects [B] affections [C] affects [D] functions
10．[A] useful [B] good [C] bad [D] harmful
11．[A] challenge [B] d [C] doubt [D] dispute
12．[A] addition [B] fact [C] line [D] short
13．[A] if [B] because [C] thus [D] provided
14．[A] at least [B] at most [C] at best [D] at worst
15．[A] from [B] an [C] the [D] of
16．[A] worst [B] best [C] only [D] natural
17．[A] comfortable [B] calm [C] quiet [D] excited
18．[A] coldness [B] warmth [C] darkness [D] shade
19．[A] sleep [B] work [C] food [D] clothes
20．[A] differences [B] similarities [C] resemblance [D]opposites
Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
Falling profitability and flagging confidence have spread from the consumer sector to Britain’s business and professional services firms, a survey of the services industry shows. Services such as lawyers, marketing, accountancy and computing reported record falls in business volumes and values in the quarterly Confederation of British Industry services survey.
The drop in both volumes and values was the 10-year-old survey’s first twin decline since May 2003. Confidence dropped sharply and numbers employed fell slightly, ending 15 straight quarters of job increases. The survey shows the effects of the slowing economy moving into the once-buoyant business and professional sector as clients rein in spending to prepare for tougher times. The economy ground to a halt in the second quarter of the year, ending 16 years of unbroken growth.
Ian McCafferty, the CBI’s chief economic adviser, said, “Profitability in the service sector is clearly under pressure. This pressure, initially confined mainly to consumer services such as hospitality and travel, has spread to the professional and business services sector. This reflects much tougher trading conditions for business and professional firms.” Business and professional volumes and values dropped to survey lows, recording balances of minus 31 percent and minus 27 percent. A balance shows the difference between the percentage of respondents answering positively and negatively.
Firms reported pressure not just from the slowing economy but from the credit crunch. Businesses were more concerned than in the past about their ability to raise external finance for investment, recording a 22 percent balance, another record. The sector’s biggest sufferers were marketing firms. After a year of strong growth, volumes and values dropped sharply in the most recent quarter, with further falls expected. Expansion expectations turned negative for the first time in two years.
All business and professional sub-sectors had falls in volumes, apart from telecommunications and computing, though these firms’ confidence dipped, and they have cut employment. Consumer companies’ business held up better than expected, but are still below normal. Firms faced a squeeze on profitability, which dropped sharply as costs per employee rose at the fastest rate in more than four years and selling-price inflation was at its slowest for a year. Travel companies were hit particularly hard as business volumes fell at their fastest for five years and business volumes and profitability continued to drop. Confidence dipped and investment plans turned negative.
Mr McCafferty said, “Across the service sector, business confidence has fallen and companies are negative about their investment and expansion plans for the year ahead.”
21. According to the author, Britain’s business and professional services firms are____.
[A] flourishing in their own field respectively
[B] facing the problem of bankruptcy
[C] not involving the following fields: lawyers, marketing, accountancy and computing, etc.
[D] turning negative in professional work volumes and values
22. By citing the example of Ian McCafferty, the author intends to show that____.
[A] consumer services dominate in the profitability of service sector
[B] hospitality and travel are two important elements in professional and business services sector
[C] current situation is advantageous for business and professional firms
[D] the pressure has made it tougher for professional and business services sector
23. Which of the following statements is NOT mentioned in the passage?
[A] The economy in Britain did not come to halt until the second quarter of the year.
[B] The pressure of service sector in profitability is mainly from slowing economy and credit crunch.
[C] Business and professional volumes and values stay steady.
[D] Business will attach great importance to the ability to collect external finance.
24. The dropping profitability of travel companies was reflected in the following except that____.
[A] the cost of each employee rose at the fastest rate
[B] there is no obvious increasing sign in selling price
[C] confidence enlarged and investment plans became sanguine
[D] professional work volumes went down
25. The author’s attitude toward the issue of “dropping profit” is ____.
The state of our unions is weak. Organized labor has never been less influential, at a time when corporate America possesses unprecedented political power and overwhelming influence in both parties and the White House. After fighting for decades to improve the quality of lives of our nation’s working men and women, organized labor is no longer the countervailing influence to the dominant power of corporate America.
Unions have undoubtedly improved the lives of all working Americans, and we often take for granted the changes they’ve helped implement in the workplace. Labor has been successful in establishing the 40-hour workweek, creating minimum-wage standards and unemployment insurance, and developing overtime pay regulations, child labor laws, and worker safety and health codes. But today’s unions are virtually impotent in the face of corporate America's political supremacy.
There are about 15.5 million union members in the United States, a decline of more than 5 percent in the four years since President Bush first took office. Only 12.5 percent of wage and salary workers were union members in 2004, marking a steady decline from more than 20 percent two decades ago. Despite the institutional labor safeguards of civil service, government workers make up almost half of all union employees. Today, 36 percent of government workers are unionized, while only 8 percent of private-sector employees belong to a union, the lowest level in more than a century.
Declining union membership is not the only reason for organized labor’s recent weakness, but it does explain the unions’ diminished bargaining power. Clearly, failed union leadership and poor union management play a significant role in organized labor’s decline. At precisely the moment in history when American working men and women are under the most vicious assault from so-called free trade, job outsourcing to cheap foreign labor markets, rising healthcare costs, a failing educational system, massive illegal immigration, and stagnant wages, our labor unions continue to follow failed practices of the past and are all but helpless in the face of corporate America’s domination.
Unions refuse to throw down the gauntlet in order to light the exporting of American jobs and often get in bed with corporate America on basic issues like a minimum-wage hike. At the same time, organized labor flipped its position on open borders, supporting a guest-worker program as well as amnesty for illegal aliens, a practice that depresses wages for many of its existing union members and countless other workers by an estimated $200 billion a year. As membership decreases, it’s important for unions to find new workers and expand, but recruiting illegal aliens at the expense of existing members is not only counter to the interests of union membership nationwide but also further evidence of the hapless powerlessness of organized labor.
26. As what mentioned in the first two paragraphs, the unions in the past___________.
[A]had a powerful influence in America
[B]were more powerful than the White House
[C]were greatly appreciated by the American workers
[D]had done nothing for the American workers
27. Which of the following is true of the union’s membership?
[A]There is a rise in number during the Bush administration.
[B]Union members get their wage and salary from the union.
[C]The union is losing its attraction to the workers now.
[D]Membership is easier for government workers than private-sector employees.
28. What can we learn from the fourth paragraph?
[A]Member loss is the main cause for the labor union’s decline.
[B]Job outsourcing leads to the union’s member loss.
[C]Labor union’s decline was the result of corporate America’s domination.
[D]Labor unions have ignored the conditions which the workers are under.
29. The word “flipped” (Line 3, Para. 5) probably means ____________.
[A]carried out [B]kept up
[C]gave up [D]picked up
30. It is beneficial to the union itself to _____________.
[A]cooperate with the corporate America
[B]hold on its view on open borders
[C]recruit illegal alien members
[D]decrease the number of its membership
Thanks to slumping markets, investment banks are shedding many of their highly-paid traders. When markets recover, the banks might be tempted to replace them with rather cheaper talent. One alternative has been around for a while but has yet to catch on: autonomous trading agents—computers programmed to act like the human version without such pesky costs as holidays, lunch breaks or bonuses. Program trading has, of course, been done before; some blamed the 1987 stock market crash on computers instructed with simple decision-making rules. But robots can be smarter than that.
Dave Cliff, a researcher at Hewlett-Packard Laboratories in Bristol, England, has been creating trading robots for seven years. In computer simulations he lets them evolve “genetically”, and so allows them to adapt and fit models of real-world financial markets. His experiments have suggested that a redesign of some markets could lead to greater efficiency. Last year, a research group at IBM showed that Mr. Cliff’s artificial traders could consistently beat the human variety, in various kinds of market. Nearly all take the shape of an auction. One well-known type is the English auction, familiar to patrons of the salesrooms of Christie’s and Sotheby’s, where sellers keep mum on their offer price, and buyers increase their bids by stages until only one remains.
At the other extreme is the Dutch auction, familiar to 17th-century tulip-traders in the Netherlands as well as to bidders for American Treasury bonds. Here, buyers remain silent, and a seller reduces his price until it is accepted. Most markets for shares, commodities, foreign exchange and derivatives are a hybrid of these two types: buyers and sellers can announce their bid or offer prices at any time, and deals are constantly being closed, a so-called “continuous double auction”.
Mr. Cliff’s novel idea was to apply his evolutionary computer programs to marketplaces themselves. Why not, he thought, try and see what types of auction would let traders converge most quickly towards an equilibrium price? The results were surprising. In his models, auctions that let buyers and sellers bid at any time like most of today’s financial exchanges were less efficient than ones that required relatively more bids from either buyers or sellers. These “evolved auctions” also withstood big market shocks, such as crashes and panics, better than today's real-world versions. Mr. Cliff’s most recent results, which will be presented in Sydney, Australia, on December 10th, show that the best type of auction for any market depends crucially on even slight differences in the number of buyers and sellers.
Bank of America has been investigating these new auctions, along with robotic traders, for possible use in electronic exchanges. The hope is that today’s financial auctions and online marketplaces might work better by becoming more like their English and Dutch forebears. But what to call such multi-ethnic hybrids? Here’s introducing the “Cliffhanger”.
31. The passage is mainly__________.
[A] a review of two kinds of auctions
[B] an introduction of trading robots
[C] a survey of the trading market
[D] about trading alternatives
32. Which of the following is true according to the text?
[A] David’s robot traders have now been used in real-world markets.
[B] Robot traders can evolve like creatures.
[C] The English auction is the most popular trading form.
[D] There is room for improvement in efficiency in trading markets.
33. If you were trading American Treasury bonds, you would most likely take the trading form of ___________.
[A] the Dutch auction [B] the continuous double auction
[C] the English auction [D] the evolved auction
34. We can infer from the text that______________.
[A] existing auctions can not withstand market shocks
[B] it’s hard for traders to reach an equilibrium price
[C] the Dutch auction is better than the continuous double auction
[D] the best type of auction takes place when the number of the buyers is equal to that of sellers
35. Toward robot traders, the writer’s attitude can be said to be__________.
[A] biased [B] optimistic
[C] pessimistic [D] objective
Picture-taking is a technique both for reflecting the objective world and for expressing the singular self. Photographs depict objective realities that already exist, though only the camera can disclose them. And they depict an individual photographer's temperament, discovering itself through the camera's cropping of reality. That is, photography has two directly opposite ideals: in the first, photography is about the world and the photographer is a mere observer who counts for little; but in the second, photography is the instrument of fearlessness, questing subjectivity and the photographer is all.
These conflicting ideals arise from uneasiness on the part of both photographers and viewers of photographs toward the aggressive component in “taking” a picture. Accordingly the ideal of a photographer as observer is attracting because it implicitly denies that picture-taking is an aggressive act. The issue, of course, is not so clear-cut. What photographers do cannot be characterized as simply predatory or as simply and essentially, benevolent. As a consequence, one ideal of picture-taking or the other is always being rediscovered and championed.
An important result of the coexistence of these two ideals is a recurrent ambivalence toward photography's means. Whatever are the claims that photography might make to be a form of personal expression just like painting, its originality is closely linked to the power of a machine. The steady growth of these powers has made possible the extraordinary informativeness and imaginative formal beauty of many photographs, like Harold Edgerton's high-speed photographs of a bullet hitting its target or of the swirls and eddies of a tennis stroke. But as cameras become more sophisticated, more automated, some photographers are tempted to disarm themselves or to suggest that they are not really armed, preferring to submit themselves to the limit imposed by pre-modern camera technology because a cruder, less high-powered machine is thought to give more interesting or emotive results, to leave more room for creative accident. For example, it has been virtually a point of honor for many photographers, including Walker Evans and Cartier Bresson, to refuse to use modern equipment. These photographers have come to doubt the value of the camera as an instrument of “fast seeing”. Cartier Bresson, in fact, claims that the modern camera may see too fast.
This ambivalence toward photographic means determines trends in taste. The cult of the future (of faster and faster seeing) alternates over time with the wish to return to a purer past when images had a handmade quality. This longing for some primitive state of the photographic enterprise is currently widespread and underlies the present-day enthusiasm for daguerreotypes and the work of forgotten nineteenth-century provincial photographers. Photographers and viewers of photographs, it seems, need periodically to resist their own knowingness.
21. The two directly opposite ideals of photography differ primarily in the _________.
[A]emphasis that each places on the emotional impact of the finished product.
[B]degree of technical knowledge that each requires of the photographer.
[C]way in which each defines the role of the photographer.
[D]extent of the power that each requires of the photographer's equipment.
22. According to paragraph 2, the interest among photographers in each of the photography's two ideals can be described as _________.
23. The text states all of the following about photographs EXCEPT _________.
[A]They can display a cropped reality.
[B]They can convey information.
[C]They can depict the photographer's temperament.
[D]They can change the viewer's sensibilities.
24. The author mentions the work of Harold Edgerton in order to provide an example of _________.
[A]the relationship between photographic originality and technology.
[B]how the content of photographs has changed from the nineteenth century to the twentieth.
[C]the popularity of high-speed photography in the twentieth century.
[D]how a controlled ambivalence toward photography's means can produce outstanding pictures.
25. The author is primarily concerned with _________.
[A]describing how photographers 'individual temperaments are reflected in their work.
[B]establishing new technical standards for contemporary photography.
[C]analyzing the influence of photographic ideals on picture-taking.
[D]explaining how the technical limitations affect photographers' work.
Read the following text and answer questions by finding a subtitle for each of the marked parts or paragraphs. There are two extra items in the subtitles. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
[A] Take a Break
[B] Make a Timetable
[C] Create a Working Space
[D] Sit Comfortably
[E] Talk about Your Work
[F] Prioritize Your Work
[G] Exercise Regularly
However difficult you find it to arrange your time, it will pay off in the long run if you set aside a certain part of the day for studying—and stick to it. It is best to make a weekly allocation of your time, making sure that you have enough left for recreational activities or simply to be “with” yourself: reading a novel or watching a television programme.
As part of your weekly schedule, it is also advisable to consider exactly what you have to do in that week, and make sure that you tackle the most significant tasks first, leaving the easier or less urgent areas of your work until later.
On a physical level, make sure that you have an area or space for studying. Don’t do it just anywhere. If you always study in the same place, preferably a room of your own, you will find it easier to adjust mentally to the activity when you enter that area. You should have everything that you might need at hand.
Make sure that all the physical equipment that you use, such as a desk, chair etc., is at a good height for you. If you use a personal computer, there are plenty of guidelines available from the government on posture, angles, lighting and the like, consult these and avoid the typical student aches and pains.
If you are doing a long essay or research paper which involves the use of library books or other articles, it helps to keep details of the titles and authors on small cards in a card box. It is also a good idea to log these alphabetically so that you can find them easily—rather like keeping telephone numbers. It’s all too easy to read something and then forget where it came from.
Make use of equipment that is available to you. If you find a useful article in the library, it is best to make a copy of the relevant pages before you leave. Then, when you get back to your study, you can mark the article and make any comments that you have in the margin.
If you are working on a topic your teacher has set, but finding it hard to concentrate, it may be that you actually need to take your mind right off it for a period of time. “Airing the mind” can work wonders sometimes. After a period away from the task, having not thought about it at all, you may return to it refreshed and full of ideas.
Similarly, it may help to discuss a topic with other people, especially if you feel that you have insufficient ideas, or too many disorganized ideas, bring your topic up in conversations at meal times or with other students and see what they have to say. You don’t want to copy their ideas but listening to what they think about something may well help you develop or refine your own thoughts.
Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)
The recession has taken a toll on the institution of marriage, we keep hearing. Last month, for instance, when it was reported that the proportion of Americans aged 25 to 34 who are married fell below the proportion who have never married, it was quickly attributed to the economic downturn. Young adults, according to this narrative, have less money to spend on wedding and are less eager to enter into a lifetime commitment during times of uncertainty.
Again last week, when a report from the Pew Research Center noted that, for the first time, college-educated 30-year-olds were more likely to have been married that were people the same age without a college degree, the news was interpreted as another side effect of the recent recession. After all, the downturn has been especially hard on young men with no college degree.
But if you look at marriage in the United States over the last century, this interpretation doesn’t stand up. Marriage and divorce rates have remained remarkably immune to the ups and downs of the business cycle.
You attended a short-term training course in America and stayed with a local family. When you came back home, you found that you had left your notebook in their home. Write a letter to your host to
1) extend your thanks for looking after you,
2) state your problem, and
3) ask him to send your notebook back to you.
You should write about 100 words neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.
Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming” instead.
Do not write the address. (10 points)
Write an essay based on the following chart. In your writing, you should
1) describe the chart, and
2) give your comments.
You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)
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